According to the Patient Injuries Act (Potilasvahinkolaki 585/1986), all healthcare providers shall have patient insurance that provides compensation for injuries covered by this Act. The patient insurance not only provides security for patients but also care personnel. Any party liable to take out insurance but neglecting to do is according to the Patient Injuries Act obligated to pay a penalty premium, which may be as much as 10-fold to the normal premium.
Bodies under the obligation to take out insurance are:
Students and trainees are in an equal position to the personnel in the company or institution under the supervision of which the traineeships take place.
Other persons and companies offering care services (e.g. natural health care) are not under the obligation to take out insurance according to the Patient Injuries Act and therefore cannot take out patience insurance. Their insurance cover is to be arranged through liability insurance.
It is possible to take out a patient insurance either at your insurance company or the Finnish Patient Insurance Centre.
The following groups can take out the insurance at an insurance company:
For example, if a private physician, physiotherapist or other healthcare professional provides their services under a company name, the insurance must also be taken out in the company's name.
Ask your own union, if patient insurance taken out in the name of trade union covers services provided through companies.
The following groups can take out the insurance at the Finnish Patient Insurance Centre:
Health care provided in institutions owned and run by municipalities and joint municipal authorities (healthcare centres, fire and rescue services and care homes for the elderly and healthcare colleges, etc.) falls under insurance taken out by the local hospital district.
Health care services provided through an enterprise owned by a municipality or a joint municipal authority as well as those outsourced from a private service provider do not fall under public sector patient insurance.
The same also applies to healthcare services provided through an enterprise owned by the state or obtained through a private service provider.
Individuals who have been declined insurance by an insurance company may take out the insurance at the Finnish Patient Insurance Centre.
For further information see section Patient insurance provided by the Finnish Patient Insurance Centre.
The patient insurance can be terminated if the insurance obligation ends or the insurance is transferred to another company. The insured party must notify the insurance company in writing of the termination of the insurance obligation/operations, which based on this, will then cancel the insurance.
The insured party may cancel the insurance in order to transfer it to another company. Even in this case, the termination must be made in writing and be enclosed with a proof of the new insurance policy.
The amount of the premium depends on the classification of risks involved in the operations. The insurance company determines the premiums according to its basis of premiums.
The premium for a self-employed healthcare professional is usually a fixed sum. The premium for a private company or community is usually calculated based on the total salaries paid out by the company and using a factor corresponding to the risk classification of its operations.
Premiums for public sector operators is determined for each insured party individually mainly according to full liability principle.
Pursuant to section 7 of the Patient Injuries Act, the Finnish Patient Insurance Centre awards the patient insurance in cases where an insurance company has declined to do so.
The insured party must provide proof of the insurance company's less than three months old decision when applying for insurance from the Patient Insurance Centre. If the certificate of declining the insurance is older than three months, the operations are deemed to have taken place without the required insurance for the period exceeding this time and a penalty premium will be charged for this period.
Applying for insurance from the Finnish Patient Insurance Centre
To make an insurance agreement the following information is required:
The patient insurance application can be made using a printable form. Before filling out an application, you should acquaint yourself with the terms and conditions of the patient insurance. You can find the form and terms here. The signed application and attachments are sent via mail to the Finnish Patient Insurance Centre.
The Finnish Patient Insurance Centre will calculate, based on the information provided in the application, the amount of the annual insurance premium and will send the insured party the invoice as well as the insurance policy and terms and conditions. The premium rates charged by the Finnish Patient Insurance Centre are based on an annual risk assessment. The same premium rates will also form the basis for the penalty premium payable for periods of non-insurance. The penalty premiums may, according to section 4 of the Patient Injuries Act, be as much as ten-fold compared to the normal premium rate.
The liability of the Finnish Patient Insurance Centre begins on the date when the liability of the insurance company would have started according to the Insurance Contracts Act (Vakuutusopimuslaki 426/2010), had the insurance company awarded the insurance.